Using SAILS to Assess Speech Perception in Children with SSD

I am very excited to see an Australian replication of the finding that children with a Speech Sound Disorder (SSD) have difficulty with speech perception when tested with a word identification test implemented with recordings of children’s speech. Hearnshaw, Baker, and Munro (2018) created a task modeled on my Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning (SAILS) program. A different software platform was used to present the stimuli and record the children’s responses. The critical elements of SAILS were otherwise replicated but there were some significant differences as shown in the table below.

Hearnshaw compare SAILS

The most important differences are the younger age of the children and the targeting of phonemes with older expected ages of acquisition. Furthermore there are 12 stimuli per block and two target words per target phoneme in Hearnshaw versus 10 stimuli per block and one target word per target phoneme in my own assessment studies. In Hearnshaw the practice procedures involved fewer stimuli and less training on the task. Finally, the response mode was more complex in Hearnshaw and the response alternatives do not replicate mine. Therefore this study does not constitute a replication of my own studies and I might expect lower performance levels compared to that observed by the children tested in my own studies (I say this before setting up the next table, let’s see what happens). None-the-less, we would all expect that children with SSD would underperform their counterparts with typically developing speech especially given the close matching on age and receptive vocabulary in Hearnshaw and my own studies.

Hearnshaw SAILS data comparison table

Looking at the data in the above table, the performance of the children with SSD is uniformly lower than that of the typically developing comparison groups. Hearnshaw’s SSD group obtained a lower score overall when compared to the large sample that I reported in 2006 but slightly higher when compared to the small sample that I reported in 2003 (that study was actually Alyssa Ohberg’s undergraduate honours thesis). It is not clear that any of these differences are statistically significant so I plotted them with standard error bars below.

Hearnshaw SAILS comparison figure

The chart does reinforce the impression that the differences between diagnostic groups are significant. It is not clear about the differences across studies. It is possible that the children that Alyssa tested were more severely impaired than all the others (the GFTA is not the same as the DEAP so it is difficult to compare) or more likely the best estimate is in the third study with the largest sample size. Nonetheless, the message is clear that typically developing children in this age range will achieve scores above 70% accurate whereas children with SSD are more likely to achieve scores below 70% accurate which suggests that they are largely guessing when making judgements about incorrectly produced exemplars of the target words. Hearnshaw et al. and I both emphasize the within group variance in perceptual performance by children with SSD. Therefore, it is important to assess these children’s speech perception abilities in order to plan the most suitable intervention.

And with that I am happy to announce that the iPad version of SAILS is now available with all four modules necessary to compare to the normative data that is presented below for three age groups.

SAILS Norms RBL 2018

Specifically, the modules that are currently available for purchase ($5.49 CAD per module) are as follows:

-“k”: cat (free)

-“l”: lake

-“r”: rat, rope, door

“s”: Sue, soap, bus

Please see for more information from me and Alex Herbay who wrote the software, or go directly to the app store: SAILS by Susan Rvachew and Alex Herbay

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